Also referred to as the Federal Republic of Somalia, the country is situated in the Horn of Africa bordering numerous countries i.e Ethiopia in the East, Garden of Aden in the North, Djibouti in the North West Kenya in the South East and the Indian Ocean in the East. With a terrain consisting of plateaus, highlands, plains, the country has the longest coastline on Africa’s mainland. The country has an estimated population of 16.3 million with 85% being ethnic Somalis that have taken on the Northern part of the country where as the other residents occupy the Southern parts. The languages spoken in the country include; Arabic and Somali which belong to the Afroasiatic family and many people people are Muslim with the majority being Sunni.
The country covers an area of 637,657 km2 with plains, highlands, plateaus with rugged East-West ranges of the Ogo Mountains that lie at different distances from Gulf of Aden Coast.
The country experiences hot conditions that go through out the year with monsoon winds as well as irregular rainfall that falls in some regions. The mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 to 40 °C (86 to 104 °F) with arid and semi arid conditions in the North Eastern, South and Central parts of the country. The annual rainfall in the central is usually less than 100 mm with the coastal areas being hot and humid through out the year with the hinterland being hot and dry. Four seasons control the pastoral and agricultural lives of these people and these are dictated by the shift in the wind patterns.
The vegetation of the country is a combination of low bushes and grass clumps, broken Mountain Terrain, shallow plateau valleys, plains as well as highlands.